Only after Ibrahim Pasha's campaign did the Ottoman Empire try to solidify its presence in the Syria Vilayet, which Transjordan was part of. A series of tax and land reforms (Tanzimat) in 1864 brought some prosperity back to agriculture and to abandoned villages, while it provoked a backlash in other areas of Transjordan. Muslim Circassians and Chechens, fleeing Russian persecution, sought refuge in the Levant. In Transjordan and with Ottoman support, Circassians first settled in the long-abandoned vicinity of Amman in 1867, and later in the surrounding villages. After having established its administration, conscription and heavy taxation policies by the Ottoman authorities, led to revolts in the areas it controlled. Transjordan's tribes in particular revolted during the Shoubak (1905) and the Karak Revolts (1910), which were brutally suppressed. The construction of the Hejaz Railway in 1908–stretching across the length of Transjordan and linking Mecca with Istanbul–helped the population economically as Transjordan became a stopover for pilgrims. However, increasing policies of Turkification and centralization adopted by the Ottoman Empire disenchanted the Arabs of the Levant.
According to Freedom House, Jordan is ranked as the 3rd freest Arab country, and as "partly free" in the Freedom in the World 2018 report. The 2010 Arab Democracy Index from the Arab Reform Initiative ranked Jordan first in the state of democratic reforms out of 15 Arab countries. Jordan ranked first among the Arab states and 78th globally in the Human Freedom Index in 2015, and ranked 55th out of 175 countries in the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) issued by Transparency International in 2014, where 175th is most corrupt. In the 2016 Press Freedom Index maintained by Reporters Without Borders, Jordan ranked 135th out of 180 countries worldwide, and 5th of 19 countries in the Middle East and North Africa region. Jordan's score was 44 on a scale from 0 (most free) to 105 (least free). The report added "the Arab Spring and the Syrian conflict have led the authorities to tighten their grip on the media and, in particular, the Internet, despite an outcry from civil society". Jordanian media consists of public and private institutions. Popular Jordanian newspapers include Al Ghad and the Jordan Times. The two most-watched local TV stations are Ro'ya TV and Jordan TV. Internet penetration in Jordan reached 76% in 2015.
The Air Jordan XX2/XXII shoe model, designed by D'Wayne Edwards, was released on March 24, 2007. The original retail price of the model was US$175. The aggressive and sharp design was inspired by the F-22 Raptor fighter jet. Some technical features of the shoe include an updated visible and interchangeable I.P.S. suspension system, a new metallic mesh for ventilation, the Air Jordan camouflage pattern printed in reflective 3M material, and an updated traction system, based on an army general's stripes.
All of Bhutan outside of the Paro and Thimphu valleys is classified as a restricted area. Tour operators obtain a 'road permit' for the places on your itinerary, and this permit is checked and endorsed by the police at immigration checkpoints strategically located at important road junctions. The tour operator must return the permit to the government at the completion of the tour, and it is scrutinized for major deviations from the authorized program.
Fortified towns and urban centers first emerged in the southern Levant early on in the Bronze Age (3600–1200 BC). Wadi Feynan became a regional center for copper extraction, which was exploited on a large-scale to produce bronze. Trade and movement of people in the Middle East peaked, spreading and refining civilizations. Villages in Transjordan expanded rapidly in areas with reliable water resources and agricultural land. Ancient Egyptians expanded towards the Levant and controlled both banks of the Jordan River. During the Iron Age (1200–332 BC) after the withdrawal of the Egyptians, Transjordan was home to Ammon, Edom and Moab. They spoke Semitic languages of the Canaanite group, and are considered to be tribal kingdoms rather than states. Ammon was located in the Amman plateau; Moab in the highlands east of the Dead Sea; and Edom in the area around Wadi Araba down south.
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Jordan has three commercial airports, all receiving and dispatching international flights. Two are in Amman and the third is in Aqaba, King Hussein International Airport. Amman Civil Airport serves several regional routes and charter flights while Queen Alia International Airport is the major international airport in Jordan and is the hub for Royal Jordanian, the flag carrier. Queen Alia International Airport expansion was completed in 2013 with new terminals costing $700 million, to handle over 16 million passengers annually. It is now considered a state-of-the-art airport and was awarded 'the best airport by region: Middle East' for 2014 and 2015 by Airport Service Quality (ASQ) survey, the world's leading airport passenger satisfaction benchmark programme.
Al-Qaeda under Abu Musab al-Zarqawi's leadership launched coordinated explosions in three hotel lobbies in Amman on 9 November 2005, resulting in 60 deaths and 115 injured. The bombings, which targeted civilians, caused widespread outrage among Jordanians. The attack is considered to be a rare event in the country, and Jordan's internal security was dramatically improved afterwards. No major terrorist attacks have occurred since then. Abdullah and Jordan are viewed with contempt by Islamic extremists for the country's peace treaty with Israel and its relationship with the West.
The Air Jordan VI had a new design by Tinker Hatfield and released in 1991. The Original 5 colorways were: Black/Infrared, White/Infrared, White/ Carmine-Black, White/Sport Blue, and Off White/Maroon. The Air Jordan VI introduced a reinforcement around the toe, It had two holes in the tongue, and a molded heel tab on the back of the sneaker (demanded by Jordan so it wouldn't hit his Achilles tendon). Like the Air Jordan V this sneaker also had Clear rubber/"Icy" Soles. The Air Jordan VI was the last Air Jordan to feature the Nike Air logo on it.
Of particular note, there is an Olympic colorway, a Nelly version apparently inspired by the rap artist Nelly and a shoe that combines the colors of all the teams that the Bulls defeated in the NBA Finals, acting as the 'sixth shoe' since only five separate teams were defeated for the Bulls to win six championships; the Utah Jazz was defeated twice, in 1997 and 1998.
4.58 / 5 53 VOTESTwo of the most recognizable brands on the planet – Xbox and Jordan Brand – are teaming up to hook three lucky fans up with a once-in-a-lifetime package. In honor of past and upcoming epic releases of the Air Jordan 3, the two are creating three Xbox One X consoles inspired by the Air Jordan 3 “Black/Cement“, the “Free Throw Line“, and the “Tinker Hatfield“. While that is a significant haul by itself, sneakerheads will rejoice to know that each console comes with the sneaker it represents alongside it. Interested parties will be able to enter the giveaway via a contest on Twitter that started this morning and carries on all the way until Wednesday, February 21st at 10 PM PT. For more information, you can check out the link on Xbox’s website here.
Four centuries of stagnation during Ottoman rule came to an end during World War I by the 1916 Arab Revolt; driven by long-term resentment towards the Ottoman authorities, and growing Arab nationalism. The revolt was led by Sharif Hussein of Mecca, and his sons Abdullah, Faisal and Ali, members of the Hashemite dynasty of the Hejaz, descendants of the Prophet Muhammad. Locally, the revolt garnered the support of the Transjordanian tribes, including Bedouins, Circassians and Christians. The Allies of World War I, including Britain and France, whose imperial interests converged with the Arabist cause, offered support. The revolt started on 5 June 1916 from Medina and pushed northwards until the fighting reached Transjordan in the Battle of Aqaba on 6 July 1917. The revolt reached its climax when Faisal entered Damascus in October 1918, and established the Arab Kingdom of Syria, which Transjordan was part of.
Alexander the Great's conquest of the Persian Empire in 332 BC introduced Hellenistic culture to the Middle East. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, the empire split among his generals, and in the end much of Transjordan was disputed between the Ptolemies based in Egypt and the Seleucids based in Syria. The Nabataeans, nomadic Arabs based south of Edom, managed to establish an independent kingdom in 169 BC by exploiting the struggle between the two Greek powers. The Nabataean Kingdom controlled much of the trade routes of the region, and it stretched south along the Red Sea coast into the Hejaz desert, up to as far north as Damascus, which it controlled for a short period (85–71) BC. The Nabataeans massed a fortune from their control of the trade routes, often drawing the envy of their neighbors. Petra, Nabataea's barren capital, flourished in the 1st century AD, driven by its extensive water irrigation systems and agriculture. The Nabataeans were also talented stone carvers, building their most elaborate structure, Al-Khazneh, in the first century AD. It is believed to be the mausoleum of the Arab Nabataean King Aretas IV.
In 629 AD, during the Battle of Mu'tah in what is today Al-Karak, the Byzantines and their Arab Christian clients, the Ghassanids, staved off an attack by a Muslim Rashidun force that marched northwards towards the Levant from the Hejaz (in modern-day Saudi Arabia). The Byzantines however were defeated by the Muslims in 636 AD at the decisive Battle of Yarmouk just north of Transjordan. Transjordan was an essential territory for the conquest of Damascus. The first, or Rashidun, caliphate was followed by that of the Ummayads (661–750). Under the Umayyad Caliphate, several desert castles were constructed in Transjordan, including: Qasr Al-Mshatta and Qasr Al-Hallabat. The Abbasid Caliphate's campaign to take over the Umayyad's began in Transjordan. A powerful 747 AD earthquake is thought to have contributed to the Umayyads defeat to the Abbasids, who moved the caliphate's capital from Damascus to Baghdad. During Abbasid rule (750–969), several Arab tribes moved northwards and settled in the Levant. Concurrently, growth of maritime trade diminished Transjordan's central position, and the area became increasingly impoverished. After the decline of the Abbasids, Transjordan was ruled by the Fatimid Caliphate (969–1070), then by the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem (1115–1187).
The Air Jordan 1 was first produced for Michael Jordan in 1984. It was designed by Peter C. Moore. The red and black colorway of the Nike Air Ship, the prototype for the Jordan 1, was later outlawed by NBA Commissioner David Stern for having very little white on them (this rule, known as the '51 percent' rule, was repealed in the late 2000s decade). It is a common misconception that the Jordan 1 was banned however, it was indeed the Nike Air Ship. After the Nike Air Ship was banned, Michael Jordan and Nike introduced the Jordan 1 in color ways with more white such as the "Chicago" color way and the "Black Toe" color way. They used the Nike Air Ship's banning as a promotional tool in advertisements hinting that the shoes gave an unfair competitive advantage for the Jordan 1 and that whoever wore them had a certain edginess associated with outlaw activities. Fragment x Jordan 1's: Staying true to the original Air Jordan, the remastered design features an all-over, premium leather execution with black overlays, blue accents, and Fragment insignia. The Air Jordan I was originally released on the market from 1985 to 1986, with re-releases (known as "retros") in 1994, 2001–2004, and 2007–2018.
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