What is now Jordan has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period. Three stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age: Ammon, Moab and Edom. Later rulers include the Nabataean Kingdom, the Roman Empire, and the Ottoman Empire. After the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottomans in 1916 during World War I, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned by Britain and France. The Emirate of Transjordan was established in 1921 by the Hashemite, then Emir, Abdullah I, and the emirate became a British protectorate. In 1946, Jordan became an independent state officially known as the Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan, but was renamed in 1949 to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan after the country captured the West Bank during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and annexed it until it was lost to Israel in 1967. Jordan renounced its claim to the territory in 1988, and became one of two Arab states to have signed a peace treaty with Israel in 1994. Jordan is a founding member of the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Co-operation. The sovereign state is a constitutional monarchy, but the king holds wide executive and legislative powers.
There are around 1.2 million illegal, and 500,000 legal, migrant workers in the kingdom. Thousands of foreign women, mostly from the Middle East and Eastern Europe, work in nightclubs, hotels and bars across the kingdom. American and European expatriate communities are concentrated in the capital, as the city is home to many international organizations and diplomatic missions.
There are about 50,000 Jordanian troops working with the United Nations in peacekeeping missions across the world. Jordan ranks third internationally in participation in U.N. peacekeeping missions, with one of the highest levels of peacekeeping troop contributions of all U.N. member states. Jordan has dispatched several field hospitals to conflict zones and areas affected by natural disasters across the region.
The currency is the Jordanian dinar (JOD), divided into 1000 fils and 100 piastres (or qirsh). Coins come in denominations 1, 5, and 10 piastres and JOD0.25 and JOD0.5. Banknotes are found in 1, 5, 10, 20, and 50 dinar denominations. The currency rate is effectively fixed at JOD0.708 per US dollar (or USD1.41 per dinar) although it may vary depending on the tax, an unnaturally high rate. Most upmarket restaurants and shops at shopping malls also accept US dollars.
Roman legions under Pompey conquered much of the Levant in 63 BC, inaugurating a period of Roman rule that lasted four centuries. In 106 AD, Emperor Trajan annexed Nabataea unopposed, and rebuilt the King's Highway which became known as the Via Traiana Nova road. The Romans gave the Greek cities of Transjordan–Philadelphia (Amman), Gerasa (Jerash), Gedara (Umm Qays), Pella (Tabaqat Fahl) and Arbila (Irbid)–and other Hellenistic cities in Palestine and southern Syria, a level of autonomy by forming the Decapolis, a ten-city league. Jerash is one of the best preserved Roman cities in the East; it was even visited by Emperor Hadrian during his journey to Palestine.
This pair of Jordans come equipped with Keefer, which held the shoes and a compact disc containing the Air Jordan XVII song. The retail price of the shoe was US$200. The defining functional design element of the Air Jordan XVII model, which was later replicated on the Air Jordan XXIII model, was the reinforced mid-sole which provided a sturdy and stable chassis for the shoe. They were made in four mid top colors and three low-top colors.
Day rates for taxis can be negotiated. These are usually through specific taxi drivers that have offered the service to friends or colleagues before. If you are staying at a hotel, the reception desk should be able to find you a reliable driver. It is also quite common in quiet times to be approached (politely) by taxi drivers on the street looking for business. There are plenty of good English speakers so it pays to wait until you find one you like.
The climate in Jordan varies greatly. Generally, the further inland from the Mediterranean, greater contrasts in temperature occur and the less rainfall there is. The country's average elevation is 812 m (2,664 ft) (SL). The highlands above the Jordan Valley, mountains of the Dead Sea and Wadi Araba and as far south as Ras Al-Naqab are dominated by a Mediterranean climate, while the eastern and northeastern areas of the country are arid desert. Although the desert parts of the kingdom reach high temperatures, the heat is usually moderated by low humidity and a daytime breeze, while the nights are cool.
The first Jordan Sixty Plus was released in August 2009. The Jordan 6ixty Plus (60+) is a hybrid sneaker from Jordan Brand that combines the various sneakers Michael Jordan wore when he scored 60 or more points in an NBA Game. In these games, MJ was wearing the Jordan I, II, V and VII. Inspiration came from the Air Jordan 5 because he was wearing those when he scored his career high of 69 points.
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The second Countdown package consisted of the Air Jordan Retro XIV model in Black/Varsity Red which was similar to the Air Jordan "Last Shot" XIV model though it consisted of a white stitching on the sides, a different color outer arch, and a different colored Jumpman logo on the side. The other Air Jordan was the Air Jordan Retro IX model in a White/Black/True Red colorway. The package retailed for US$310.00 and was released March 15, 2008.
The Air Jordan XXXII (32) was first released on September 23, 2017. This model is heavily influenced by the Air Jordan 2. It also included a Jordan "Wings" logo. It first came out in the "Rossa Corsa" colorway. A special "Banned" colorway was released on October 18, 2017 to coincide with the 31st anniversary for when the NBA banned the original AJ I black and red colorway. Another special edition called the "Russ" colorway was released to celebrate Russell Westbrook's sponsorship with the Jordan brand.
Jordan is a relatively-small, semi-arid, almost-landlocked country with an area of 89,342 km2 (34,495 sq mi) and a population numbering 10 million, making it the 11th-most populous Arab country. Sunni Islam, practiced by around 95% of the population, is the dominant religion in Jordan that coexists with the indigenous Christian minority. Jordan has been repeatedly referred to as an "oasis of stability" in a turbulent region. It has been mostly unscathed from the violence that swept the region following the Arab Spring in 2010. From as early as 1948, Jordan has accepted refugees from multiple neighbouring countries in conflict. An estimated 2.1 million Palestinian and 1.4 million Syrian refugees are present in Jordan as of a 2015 census. The kingdom is also a refuge to thousands of Iraqi Christians fleeing persecution by ISIL. While Jordan continues to accept refugees, the recent large influx from Syria placed substantial strain on national resources and infrastructure.
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