Released in 2004, this is the first Jordan release after his third, and final, retirement which came after the 2002–03 NBA season. The design was inspired by the black mamba snake, and two original colorways where released: white/flint grey and black/red. Three regional colorways and three special edition colorways were released. They consisted of the East, West, and Midwest edition for regular and West, East, and Olympic for the SE (special edition).
The 2015 census showed Jordan's population to be 9,531,712 (Female: 47%; Males: 53%). Around 2.9 million (30%) were non-citizens, a figure including refugees, and illegal immigrants.[3] There were 1,977,534 households in Jordan in 2015, with an average of 4.8 persons per household (compared to 6.7 persons per household for the census of 1979).[3] The capital and largest city of Jordan is Amman, which is one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities and one of the most liberal in the Arab world.[226] The population of Amman was 65,754 in 1946, but came to be over 4 million in 2015.

The official language is Modern Standard Arabic, a literary language taught in the schools.[254] Most Jordanians natively speak one of the non-standard Arabic dialects known as Jordanian Arabic. Jordanian Sign Language is the language of the deaf community. English, though without official status, is widely spoken throughout the country and is the de facto language of commerce and banking, as well as a co-official status in the education sector; almost all university-level classes are held in English and almost all public schools teach English along with Standard Arabic.[254] Chechen, Circassian, Armenian, Tagalog, and Russian are popular among their communities.[255] French is offered as an elective in many schools, mainly in the private sector.[254] German is an increasingly popular language; it has been introduced at a larger scale since the establishment of the German-Jordanian University in 2005.[256]
In 1997, Air Jordan XIII's were released to the public. This model was known for its cushioning along the feet, designed by Hatfield. The Black Panther was the inspiration for the Air Jordan XIII, the sole resembles the pads on a panther's paw. But also the panther is the hologram on the back of the shoe which imitates a panther's eyes in the dark when light is shined at them. They were re-released in 2005, which coincided with the release of the Air Jordan 8s shoe.
On 7 February 1999, Abdullah II ascended the throne upon the death of his father Hussein.[104] Abdullah embarked on economic liberalisation when he assumed the throne, and his reforms led to an economic boom which continued until 2008.[105] Abdullah II has been credited with increasing foreign investment, improving public-private partnerships and providing the foundation for Aqaba's free-trade zone and Jordan's flourishing information and communication technology (ICT) sector.[105] He also set up five other special economic zones.[105] However, during the following years Jordan's economy experienced hardship as it dealt with the effects of the Great Recession and spillover from the Arab Spring.[106]
According to data from the Jordanian Ministry of Public Works and Housing, as of 2011, the Jordanian road network consisted of 2,878 km (1,788 mi) of main roads; 2,592 km (1,611 mi) of rural roads and 1,733 km (1,077 mi) of side roads. The Hejaz Railway built during the Ottoman Empire which extended from Damascus to Mecca will act as a base for future railway expansion plans. Currently, the railway has little civilian activity; it is primarily used for transporting goods. A national railway project is currently undergoing studies and seeking funding sources.[186]

Roman legions under Pompey conquered much of the Levant in 63 BC, inaugurating a period of Roman rule that lasted four centuries.[43] In 106 AD, Emperor Trajan annexed Nabataea unopposed, and rebuilt the King's Highway which became known as the Via Traiana Nova road.[43] The Romans gave the Greek cities of Transjordan–Philadelphia (Amman), Gerasa (Jerash), Gedara (Umm Qays), Pella (Tabaqat Fahl) and Arbila (Irbid)–and other Hellenistic cities in Palestine and southern Syria, a level of autonomy by forming the Decapolis, a ten-city league.[44] Jerash is one of the best preserved Roman cities in the East; it was even visited by Emperor Hadrian during his journey to Palestine.[45]
Life expectancy in Jordan was around 74.8 years in 2017.[17] The leading cause of death is cardiovascular diseases, followed by cancer.[278] Childhood immunization rates have increased steadily over the past 15 years; by 2002 immunisations and vaccines reached more than 95% of children under five.[279] In 1950, Water and sanitation was available to only 10% of the population, while in 2015 reached 98% of Jordanians.[280]
Four centuries of stagnation during Ottoman rule came to an end during World War I by the 1916 Arab Revolt; driven by long-term resentment towards the Ottoman authorities, and growing Arab nationalism.[70] The revolt was led by Sharif Hussein of Mecca, and his sons Abdullah, Faisal and Ali, members of the Hashemite dynasty of the Hejaz, descendants of the Prophet Muhammad.[70] Locally, the revolt garnered the support of the Transjordanian tribes, including Bedouins, Circassians and Christians.[73] The Allies of World War I, including Britain and France, whose imperial interests converged with the Arabist cause, offered support.[74] The revolt started on 5 June 1916 from Medina and pushed northwards until the fighting reached Transjordan in the Battle of Aqaba on 6 July 1917.[75] The revolt reached its climax when Faisal entered Damascus in October 1918, and established the Arab Kingdom of Syria, which Transjordan was part of.[73]

Music in Jordan is now developing with a lot of new bands and artists, who are now popular in the Middle East. Artists such as Omar Al-Abdallat, Toni Qattan, Diana Karazon and Hani Metwasi have increased the popularity of Jordanian music.[263] The Jerash Festival is an annual music event that features popular Arab singers.[263] Pianist and composer Zade Dirani has gained wide international popularity.[264] There is also an increasing growth of alternative Arabic rock bands, who are dominating the scene in the Arab World, including: El Morabba3, Autostrad, JadaL, Akher Zapheer and Aziz Maraka.[265]
Life expectancy in Jordan was around 74.8 years in 2017.[17] The leading cause of death is cardiovascular diseases, followed by cancer.[278] Childhood immunization rates have increased steadily over the past 15 years; by 2002 immunisations and vaccines reached more than 95% of children under five.[279] In 1950, Water and sanitation was available to only 10% of the population, while in 2015 reached 98% of Jordanians.[280]

Queen Alia International Airport (QAIA) is the country's main airport. A state-of-the-art new terminal was inaugurated in March 2013 to replace the airport's older two passenger terminals and one cargo terminal, the total number of passengers served by QAIA in 2014 was 7,089,008. It is 35km south of Amman (on the main route to Aqaba). You should allow 45 minutes to reach the airport from the downtown Amman, approximately 30 minutes from West Amman. Transport into Amman is provided by the Royal Jordanian bus service to the city terminal near the 7th circle, or by taxi (around JOD20 - 30, fixed tariff depending on area). Ride-hailing services like Uber are aggressively prosecuted, cars impounded, but pirate taxis run the lot at the same price. In addition to Queen Alia, Jordan has two other international airports:
The Air Jordan XX9, also designed by Hatfield, released in September 2014 in both an elephant print and a knit edition. The shoe has already been debuted in the NBA by Russell Westbrook and Kawhi Leonard. The shoe has Flight Web for superior lockdown, a performance woven upper for comfort, support, strength, and protection, and a re-engineered Flight Plate. The XX9 also released in a pack alongside the iconic Air Jordan XI on December 23, 2014 called the "Ultimate Gift of Flight" pack.[20]
What is now Jordan has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period. Three stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age: Ammon, Moab and Edom. Later rulers include the Nabataean Kingdom, the Roman Empire, and the Ottoman Empire. After the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottomans in 1916 during World War I, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned by Britain and France. The Emirate of Transjordan was established in 1921 by the Hashemite, then Emir, Abdullah I, and the emirate became a British protectorate. In 1946, Jordan became an independent state officially known as the Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan, but was renamed in 1949 to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan after the country captured the West Bank during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and annexed it until it was lost to Israel in 1967. Jordan renounced its claim to the territory in 1988, and became one of two Arab states to have signed a peace treaty with Israel in 1994.[10] Jordan is a founding member of the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Co-operation. The sovereign state is a constitutional monarchy, but the king holds wide executive and legislative powers.

Jordan has three commercial airports, all receiving and dispatching international flights. Two are in Amman and the third is in Aqaba, King Hussein International Airport. Amman Civil Airport serves several regional routes and charter flights while Queen Alia International Airport is the major international airport in Jordan and is the hub for Royal Jordanian, the flag carrier. Queen Alia International Airport expansion was completed in 2013 with new terminals costing $700 million, to handle over 16 million passengers annually.[187] It is now considered a state-of-the-art airport and was awarded 'the best airport by region: Middle East' for 2014 and 2015 by Airport Service Quality (ASQ) survey, the world's leading airport passenger satisfaction benchmark programme.[188]
Jordan is classified by the World Bank as an "upper-middle income" country.[169] However, approximately 14.4% of the population lives below the national poverty line on a longterm basis (as of 2010),[169] while almost a third fell below the national poverty line during some time of the year—known as transient poverty.[170] The economy, which boasts a GDP of $39.453 billion (as of 2016),[4] grew at an average rate of 8% per annum between 2004 and 2008, and around 2.6% 2010 onwards.[17] GDP per capita rose by 351% in the 1970s, declined 30% in the 1980s, and rose 36% in the 1990s—currently $5,092 per capita.[171] The Jordanian economy is one of the smallest economies in the region, and the country's populace suffers from relatively high rates of unemployment and poverty.[17]
On 7 February 1999, Abdullah II ascended the throne upon the death of his father Hussein.[104] Abdullah embarked on economic liberalisation when he assumed the throne, and his reforms led to an economic boom which continued until 2008.[105] Abdullah II has been credited with increasing foreign investment, improving public-private partnerships and providing the foundation for Aqaba's free-trade zone and Jordan's flourishing information and communication technology (ICT) sector.[105] He also set up five other special economic zones.[105] However, during the following years Jordan's economy experienced hardship as it dealt with the effects of the Great Recession and spillover from the Arab Spring.[106]

Eating in public during Ramadan is not prohibited, but you should not eat in order to support the majority of (Muslim) community. During Ramadan, there are almost empty streets around the sunset, for all people get home in order to eat. Shops, malls, restaurants etc open later (in the summer, generally after 21:00). This does not affect major restaurants near tourist destinations, however. Also, during Eid al-Fitr it is impossible to get a servees (minibus) in the late afternoon or evening in many parts of the country. Plan in advance if you are taking a servees to an outlying area; you may need to get a taxi back. However, JETT and Trust International Transport usually add more buses to their schedules during this time period, especially those going from Amman to Aqaba.


This was the first shoe after Jordan's retirement. The design of the XV's originated from the aircraft prototype X-15, which was developed by NASA during the 1950s. The sides of the XV were made from woven kevlar fibre. The Jordan XV's were the first Air Jordans to be negatively received in a while (the last being the Air Jordan 2's), because the quality on the Jordan shoes was bad.[17]


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