Jordan has a diverse range of habitats, ecosystems and biota due to its varied landscapes and environments. The Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature was set up in 1966 to protect and manage Jordan's natural resources. Nature reserves in Jordan include the Dana Biosphere Reserve, the Azraq Wetland Reserve, the Shaumari Wildlife Reserve and the Mujib Nature Reserve.
The ballistic mesh upper of the sneaker was meant to make the Air Jordan XI lighter and more durable than past sneakers. Further changes came with the use of a carbon fiber spring plate in the translucent "frosty" outsole, giving the shoe better torque when twisting on the court. The highlight and arguably best-known aspect of the shoe is its patent leather mudguard. Patent leather was lightweight compared to genuine leather and also tended not to stretch as much – a property to help keep the foot within the bounds of the foot bed during directional changes on the court. The patent leather gave the XI a "formal" look. When this shoe released, some wore this model with business suits instead of dress shoes.
Jordan's military industry thrived after the King Abdullah Design and Development Bureau (KADDB) defence company was established by King Abdullah II in 1999, to provide an indigenous capability for the supply of scientific and technical services to the Jordanian Armed Forces, and to become a global hub in security research and development. It manufactures all types of military products, many of which are presented at the bi-annually held international military exhibition SOFEX. In 2015, KADDB exported $72 million worth of industries to over 42 countries.
Jordan is a home to 2,175,491 Palestinian refugees as of December 2016; most of them, but not all, were granted Jordanian citizenship. The first wave of Palestinian refugees arrived during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and peaked in the 1967 Six-Day War and the 1990 Gulf War. In the past, Jordan had given many Palestinian refugees citizenship, however recently Jordanian citizenship is given only in rare cases. 370,000 of these Palestinians live in UNRWA refugee camps. Following the capture of the West Bank by Israel in 1967, Jordan revoked the citizenship of thousands of Palestinians to thwart any attempt to permanently resettle from the West Bank to Jordan. West Bank Palestinians with family in Jordan or Jordanian citizenship were issued yellow cards guaranteeing them all the rights of Jordanian citizenship if requested.
The Air Jordan XXX (30) debuted on January 14, 2016 at an exclusive media event in Chicago. It was again designed by Tinker Hatfield. The first colorway of the shoe released on February 16. The shoe consists of an upper and outsole very similar to that of the XX9 of the previous year. The upper is a combination of performance woven and flyknit that is new for the brand in 2016, and also has a flyknit-constructed ankle collar that extends slightly past where the collar of the shoe would normally be. Jordan brand has also brought back functional Dynamic Fit in the lacing system. The outsole/midsole is almost identical to the XX9, with very minor technical tweaks. The outsole boasts a more noticeable change, with a different traction pattern unique to this shoe, while the midsole remains almost entirely the same. The only difference in the midlsole cushioning setup from the Jordan XX9 is a material change in the FlightPlate setup, which is now named FlightSpeed and is constructed of a plastic rather than carbon fiber for more flexibility while remaining structural integrity.
Air Jordan 2012 offers six customization configurations. Two interchangeable sleeves and three insoles adapt to different playing styles. The Deluxe model was launched on February 8, while the customization Flight models were released on February 25, 2012. It was the final Air Jordan model to be named after the year it was released as the numbered system returned in 2013 with the Air Jordan XX8.
The "Jordan Son of Mars" is an Air Jordan hybrid shoe, that released in the Summer of 2012. It borrows prominent design elements from the Air Jordan III, IV, V, VI, and XX. It also retains a strap across the shoe laces, that is a custom modification with a design that seems to be elephant print but is instead a series of relevant icons, etc. The Jordan Son Of Mars was birthed from the Spizike, which was originally inspired by all the Jordan shoes made in collaboration with famous urban director Spike Lee. Son of Mars is a sneaker directly influenced by Spike Lee's longtime involvement with the brand, as the shoe pieces together models in which Spike (or Mars Blackmon rather) had a hand in launching.
The oldest evidence of hominid habitation in Jordan dates back at least 200,000 years. Jordan is rich in Paleolithic (up to 20,000 years ago) remains due to its location within the Levant where expansions of hominids out of Africa converged. Past lakeshore environments attracted different hominids, and several remains of tools have been found from this period. The world's oldest evidence of bread-making was found in a 14,500 years old Natufian site in Jordan's northeastern desert. The transition from hunter-gatherer to establishing populous agricultural villages occurred during the Neolithic period (10,000–4,500 BC). 'Ain Ghazal, one such village located in today's eastern Amman, is one of the largest known prehistoric settlements in the Near East. Dozens of plaster statues of the human form dating to 7250 BC were uncovered there and they are among the oldest ever found. Other than the usual Chalcolithic (4500–3600 BC) villages such as Tulaylet Ghassul in the Jordan Valley, a series of circular stone enclosures in the eastern basalt desert−whose purpose remains uncertain–have baffled archaeologists.
In 2012, the Air Jordan X was re-released. They are dubbed the "Chicago Bulls", as they are part of a regional pack (City Pack), representing five teams. The lacing and tongue are completely black, and the red inner lining contrasts with the red inserts on the outsole. The outsole's design features a striped (wavy) design, which list many of Jordan's accomplishments. They retailed at $160. The Air Jordan X was released again in an OVO collaboration in 2015 and 2016, releasing in white and black colorways respectively with stingray detailing.
Jordan is a key ally of the USA and UK and, together with Egypt, is one of only two Arab nations to have signed peace treaties with Israel, Jordan's direct neighbour. Jordan views an independent Palestinian state with the 1967 borders, as part of the two-state solution and of supreme national interest. The ruling Hashemite dynasty has had custodianship over holy sites in Jerusalem since 1924, a position re-inforced in the Israel–Jordan peace treaty. Turmoil in Jerusalem's Al-Aqsa mosque between Israelis and Palestinians created tensions between Jordan and Israel concerning the former's role in protecting the Muslim and Christian sites in Jerusalem.
Jordan's national airline is Royal Jordanian Airlines, it is a member of the One World alliance. In addition, Jordan is served by a number of foreign carriers including British Airways, Air France, airBaltic, Lufthansa, Austrian, Alitalia, Aegean, Turkish Airlines, Egypt Air, Emirates, Etihad and Qatar Airways. Low-cost airline Air Arabia flies between Jordan and destinations all over the Middle East. Ryanair is expected to launch flights in March 2018 from Cyprus.
When eating at restaurants in Jordan (especially in touristy areas such as Petra and Aqaba), take note of the price of your order on the menu so you have an idea of how much the bill should be. Some restaurants try to charge unwary tourists a bit more than they should. If you have doubts about your bill, do question it and ask for it to be recalculated in front of you.
Jordan has been a medical tourism destination in the Middle East since the 1970s. A study conducted by Jordan's Private Hospitals Association found that 250,000 patients from 102 countries received treatment in Jordan in 2010, compared to 190,000 in 2007, bringing over $1 billion in revenue. Jordan is the region's top medical tourism destination, as rated by the World Bank, and fifth in the world overall. The majority of patients come from Yemen, Libya and Syria due to the ongoing civil wars in those countries. Jordanian doctors and medical staff have gained experience in dealing with war patients through years of receiving such cases from various conflict zones in the region. Jordan also is a hub for natural treatment methods in both Ma'in Hot Springs and the Dead Sea. The Dead Sea is often described as a 'natural spa'. It contains 10 times more salt than the average ocean, which makes it impossible to sink in. The high salt concentration of the Dead Sea has been proved as being therapeutic for many skin diseases. The uniqueness of this lake attracts several Jordanian and foreign vacationers, which boosted investments in the hotel sector in the area. The Jordan Trail, a 650 km (400 mi) hiking trail stretching the entire country from north to south, crossing several of Jordan's attractions was established in 2015. The trail aims to revive the Jordanian tourism sector.
As in all urban areas in the world, Jordan's cities have some health concerns but also keep in mind that Jordan is a centre for medical treatment in the Middle East and its world-class hospitals are respected in every part of the world. Just remember to have caution with buying food from vendors, the vendors aren't trying to hurt you but the food might be unclean. Hospitals in Jordan, especially Amman, are abundant. Jordan is a hub for medical tourism. Also, the biggest risk to your health in Jordan is probably being involved in a road traffic accident.
Holders of confirmed onward tickets may stay in transit at Gold Coast Airport or any other international airport in Australia without a visa for a maximum time of 2 hours as long as they are arriving and departing on the same aircraft (excluding Gold Coast Airport). Holders of confirmed onward tickets may also stay in transit without a visa at any international airport in Australia (except for Gold Coast Airport) for a maximum time of 8 hours.
Citizens of most other countries and territories can obtain a visa on arrival for a maximum stay of 2, 3 or 6 months for a fee. The visa is issued free of charge for citizens of Algeria, Hong Kong, Japan, Morocco, and South Africa, for tour group visitors of a minimum of 5 members staying for a minimum of two nights and are holding a non-refundable return or round trip ticket, or for independent travellers staying for a minimum of three nights and who have purchased the unified tourist site ticket that includes admission to the Roman city of Jerash, the UNESCO World Heritage site of Petra and others in the capital Amman. The fees for a visa on arrival are:
Jordan is classified by the World Bank as an "upper-middle income" country. However, approximately 14.4% of the population lives below the national poverty line on a longterm basis (as of 2010), while almost a third fell below the national poverty line during some time of the year—known as transient poverty. The economy, which boasts a GDP of $39.453 billion (as of 2016), grew at an average rate of 8% per annum between 2004 and 2008, and around 2.6% 2010 onwards. GDP per capita rose by 351% in the 1970s, declined 30% in the 1980s, and rose 36% in the 1990s—currently $5,092 per capita. The Jordanian economy is one of the smallest economies in the region, and the country's populace suffers from relatively high rates of unemployment and poverty.
The nascent Hashemite Kingdom was forced to surrender to French troops on 24 July 1920 during the Battle of Maysalun. Arab aspirations failed to gain international recognition, due mainly to the secret 1916 Sykes–Picot Agreement, which divided the region into French and British spheres of influence, and the 1917 Balfour Declaration. This was seen by the Hashemites and the Arabs as a betrayal of their previous agreements with the British, including the 1915 McMahon–Hussein Correspondence, in which the British stated their willingness to recognize the independence of a unified Arab state stretching from Aleppo to Aden under the rule of the Hashemites.:55 Abdullah, the second son of Sharif Hussein, arrived from Hejaz by train in Ma'an in southern Transjordan on 21 November 1920 to redeem the Kingdom his brother had lost. Transjordan then was in disarray; widely considered to be ungovernable with its dysfunctional local governments. Abdullah then moved to Amman and established the Emirate of Transjordan on 11 April 1921.
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All courses have 4 hours a day with each hour containing a different subject. 1st class - learning to interact (teacher can't speak English or very little) 2nd class - Get to know the words (teacher speaks in Arabic with English for words that students forgot to study or that is new). 3rd class - learning the rules (teachers covers the grammar in Arabic & English) 4th class - Writing, reading and speaking the letters clear and sharp.