Alexander the Great's conquest of the Persian Empire in 332 BC introduced Hellenistic culture to the Middle East. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, the empire split among his generals, and in the end much of Transjordan was disputed between the Ptolemies based in Egypt and the Seleucids based in Syria. The Nabataeans, nomadic Arabs based south of Edom, managed to establish an independent kingdom in 169 BC by exploiting the struggle between the two Greek powers. The Nabataean Kingdom controlled much of the trade routes of the region, and it stretched south along the Red Sea coast into the Hejaz desert, up to as far north as Damascus, which it controlled for a short period (85–71) BC. The Nabataeans massed a fortune from their control of the trade routes, often drawing the envy of their neighbors. Petra, Nabataea's barren capital, flourished in the 1st century AD, driven by its extensive water irrigation systems and agriculture. The Nabataeans were also talented stone carvers, building their most elaborate structure, Al-Khazneh, in the first century AD. It is believed to be the mausoleum of the Arab Nabataean King Aretas IV.
Sunni Islam is the dominant religion in Jordan. Muslims make up about 95% of the country's population; in turn, 93% of those self-identify as Sunnis. There are also a small number of Ahmadi Muslims, and some Shiites. Many Shia are Iraqi and Lebanese refugees. Muslims who convert to another religion as well as missionaries from other religions face societal and legal discrimination.
All courses have 4 hours a day with each hour containing a different subject. 1st class - learning to interact (teacher can't speak English or very little) 2nd class - Get to know the words (teacher speaks in Arabic with English for words that students forgot to study or that is new). 3rd class - learning the rules (teachers covers the grammar in Arabic & English) 4th class - Writing, reading and speaking the letters clear and sharp.
The Jordan 6 white/infrared and black/infrared was released February 14, 2013, at a retail price of US$170. This is the second of the same colorway retro in Jordan Brand history. The first time retro on both colorways were in 2000, they were retro separately. This time, the retro distinguished with the previous release. The heel logo are using Jumpman logo instead of Nike Air logo, this is the most significant difference between these two re-releases. Jordan Brand started using Jumpman logo
Despite being a classic Jordan icon, the Air Jordan 6 occasionally makes its way back to the flat form, of course in different retro releases. This was the shoe that once drew controversial issue due to some flaws in the construction but was later fixed and continued its flight. Aside from taking inspiration from Porsche with its rear pull tab, the Air Jordan 6 was the first Jordan to possess an inner bootie. Designed and engineered for MJ’s comfort and convenience, this shoe later achieved positive reviews.
This pair of Jordans come equipped with Keefer, which held the shoes and a compact disc containing the Air Jordan XVII song. The retail price of the shoe was US$200. The defining functional design element of the Air Jordan XVII model, which was later replicated on the Air Jordan XXIII model, was the reinforced mid-sole which provided a sturdy and stable chassis for the shoe. They were made in four mid top colors and three low-top colors.
Four centuries of stagnation during Ottoman rule came to an end during World War I by the 1916 Arab Revolt; driven by long-term resentment towards the Ottoman authorities, and growing Arab nationalism. The revolt was led by Sharif Hussein of Mecca, and his sons Abdullah, Faisal and Ali, members of the Hashemite dynasty of the Hejaz, descendants of the Prophet Muhammad. Locally, the revolt garnered the support of the Transjordanian tribes, including Bedouins, Circassians and Christians. The Allies of World War I, including Britain and France, whose imperial interests converged with the Arabist cause, offered support. The revolt started on 5 June 1916 from Medina and pushed northwards until the fighting reached Transjordan in the Battle of Aqaba on 6 July 1917. The revolt reached its climax when Faisal entered Damascus in October 1918, and established the Arab Kingdom of Syria, which Transjordan was part of.
Jordan was also selected as the location for the Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME) facility, supported by UNESCO and CERN. This particle accelerator that was opened in 2017 will allow collaboration between scientists from various rival Middle Eastern countries. The facility is the only particle accelerator in the Middle East, and one of only 60 synchrotron radiation facilities in the world.
The British reluctantly accepted Abdullah as ruler of Transjordan. Abdullah gained the trust of Tansjordan's tribal leaders before scrambling to convince them of the benefits of an organized government. Abdullah's successes drew the envy of the British, even when it was in their interest. In September 1922, the Council of the League of Nations recognised Transjordan as a state under the British Mandate for Palestine and the Transjordan memorandum, and excluded the territories east of the Jordan River from the provisions of the mandate dealing with Jewish settlement. Transjordan remained a British mandate until 1946, but it had been granted a greater level of autonomy than the region west of the Jordan River.
In 1997, Air Jordan XIII's were released to the public. This model was known for its cushioning along the feet, designed by Hatfield. The Black Panther was the inspiration for the Air Jordan XIII, the sole resembles the pads on a panther's paw. But also the panther is the hologram on the back of the shoe which imitates a panther's eyes in the dark when light is shined at them. They were re-released in 2005, which coincided with the release of the Air Jordan 8s shoe.
The Air Jordan XII was inspired by Nisshoki (the Japanese flag), and a 19th-century women dress boot. However, featuring gold-plated steel lace loops, embossed lizard skin pattern and a full length zoom air unit with a carbon fiber shank plate, this model set a new direction in style and technology in shoe design. Though not as light weight as previous models, the construction and firmness of the shoe is widely considered to be the most durable and sturdy shoes from the Air Jordan line. The first model released after the creation of subsidiary Jordan Brand, the Air Jordan XII has no Nike branding on it of any kind, while all the models before it have Nike Air or other Nike branding outwardly (Air Jordans I-VI) or just simply on the insoles (Air Jordans VII-XI). This shoe came in 5 colorways and was released on March 13. The shoe was re-released on December 25, 2008 with the Eleven as the final countdown pack. In addition, the Twelve was combined with the Thirteen numbered Jordan to produce the 12.5. As of today, the 11/12 countdown package (retro) retails for US$750–US$800, well above the starting price of US$310. The Air Jordan XII has been subject to many highly limited colorways recently such as the Air Jordan 12 x PSNY collaboration, the Wings colorway that was limited to 12,000 pairs, and the OVO collaboration.
Nike owns none of the factories where Air Jordans are produced and contracts the work to various factory owners. Company officials say that they only design and market the shoes. However, Nike dictates production terms and standards to the contractor, often without questioning labor or safety practices. In April 1997, 10,000 Indonesian workers went on strike over wage violations at an Air Jordan factory. The same month in Vietnam 1,300 workers went on strike demanding a 1-cent-per-hour raise, and a year later in 1998, 3,000 workers in China went on strike to protest hazardous working conditions and low wages cause.
This is what frugality is all about. Being frugal is not about giving up everything you love, but rather learning to get everything you love – the smart way. It's not just about scraping by, pinching pennies, or clipping coupons. Sure, that helps. But to me, “FRUGAL” is a lifestyle. It's a mindset. It's a way of living that teaches you to stop saying, “we CAN'T afford it”, and instead say “HOW can we afford it?”. This mindset, the new frugal mindset, has led us to have more, do more, and live more now than ever before.