Jordan is a unitary state under a constitutional monarchy. Jordan's constitution, adopted in 1952 and amended a number of times since, is the legal framework that governs the monarch, government, bicameral legislature and judiciary. The king retains wide executive and legislative powers from the government and parliament. The king exercises his powers through the government that he appoints for a four-year term, which is responsible before the parliament that is made up of two chambers: the Senate and the House of Representatives. The judiciary is independent according to the constitution.
On 15 May 1948, as part of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Jordan invaded Palestine together with other Arab states. Following the war, Jordan controlled the West Bank and on 24 April 1950 Jordan formally annexed these territories. In response, some Arab countries demanded Jordan's expulsion from the Arab League. On 12 June 1950, the Arab League declared that the annexation was a temporary, practical measure and that Jordan was holding the territory as a "trustee" pending a future settlement. King Abdullah was assassinated at the Al-Aqsa Mosque in 1951 by a Palestinian militant, amid rumours he intended to sign a peace treaty with Israel.
The Crusaders constructed several Crusader castles as part of the Lordship of Oultrejordain, including those of Montreal and Al-Karak. The Ayyubids built the Ajloun Castle and rebuilt older castles, to be used as military outposts against the Crusaders. During the Battle of Hattin (1187) near Lake Tiberias just north of Transjordan, the Crusaders lost to Saladin, the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty (1187–1260). Villages in Transjordan under the Ayyubids became important stops for Muslim pilgrims going to Mecca who travelled along the route that connected Syria to the Hejaz. Several of the Ayyubid castles were used and expanded by the Mamluks (1260–1516), who divided Transjordan between the provinces of Karak and Damascus. During the next century Transjordan experienced Mongol attacks, but the Mongols were ultimately repelled by the Mamluks after the Battle of Ain Jalut (1260).
You do not have to get on a bus. You can just walk across. Israeli departure tax is 101 NIS (5 NIS commission if paid at the border, if you pay at the post office before it is free). Jordanian departure tax at the Arava border should be 10 JOD. Be aware of the taxi drivers. By law, you are allowed to share a taxi with other tourists to get out of the military border zone. Walking or cycling might not be possible. Hitch-hiking seems to be impossible. You might be able to get out of the zone for a few US dollars.
Citizens of most other countries and territories can obtain a visa on arrival for a maximum stay of 2, 3 or 6 months for a fee. The visa is issued free of charge for citizens of Algeria, Hong Kong, Japan, Morocco, and South Africa, for tour group visitors of a minimum of 5 members staying for a minimum of two nights and are holding a non-refundable return or round trip ticket, or for independent travellers staying for a minimum of three nights and who have purchased the unified tourist site ticket that includes admission to the Roman city of Jerash, the UNESCO World Heritage site of Petra and others in the capital Amman. The fees for a visa on arrival are:
Eating in public during Ramadan is not prohibited, but you should not eat in order to support the majority of (Muslim) community. During Ramadan, there are almost empty streets around the sunset, for all people get home in order to eat. Shops, malls, restaurants etc open later (in the summer, generally after 21:00). This does not affect major restaurants near tourist destinations, however. Also, during Eid al-Fitr it is impossible to get a servees (minibus) in the late afternoon or evening in many parts of the country. Plan in advance if you are taking a servees to an outlying area; you may need to get a taxi back. However, JETT and Trust International Transport usually add more buses to their schedules during this time period, especially those going from Amman to Aqaba.
This is what frugality is all about. Being frugal is not about giving up everything you love, but rather learning to get everything you love – the smart way. It's not just about scraping by, pinching pennies, or clipping coupons. Sure, that helps. But to me, “FRUGAL” is a lifestyle. It's a mindset. It's a way of living that teaches you to stop saying, “we CAN'T afford it”, and instead say “HOW can we afford it?”. This mindset, the new frugal mindset, has led us to have more, do more, and live more now than ever before.