Nike owns none of the factories where Air Jordans are produced and contracts the work to various factory owners. Company officials say that they only design and market the shoes. However, Nike dictates production terms and standards to the contractor, often without questioning labor or safety practices. In April 1997, 10,000 Indonesian workers went on strike over wage violations at an Air Jordan factory. The same month in Vietnam 1,300 workers went on strike demanding a 1-cent-per-hour raise, and a year later in 1998, 3,000 workers in China went on strike to protest hazardous working conditions and low wages cause.[38]

The kingdom has followed a pro-Western foreign policy and maintained close relations with the United States and the United Kingdom. During the first Gulf War (1990), these relations were damaged by Jordan's neutrality and its maintenance of relations with Iraq. Later, Jordan restored its relations with Western countries through its participation in the enforcement of UN sanctions against Iraq and in the Southwest Asia peace process. After King Hussein's death in 1999, relations between Jordan and the Persian Gulf countries greatly improved.[151]
Roman legions under Pompey conquered much of the Levant in 63 BC, inaugurating a period of Roman rule that lasted four centuries.[43] In 106 AD, Emperor Trajan annexed Nabataea unopposed, and rebuilt the King's Highway which became known as the Via Traiana Nova road.[43] The Romans gave the Greek cities of Transjordan–Philadelphia (Amman), Gerasa (Jerash), Gedara (Umm Qays), Pella (Tabaqat Fahl) and Arbila (Irbid)–and other Hellenistic cities in Palestine and southern Syria, a level of autonomy by forming the Decapolis, a ten-city league.[44] Jerash is one of the best preserved Roman cities in the East; it was even visited by Emperor Hadrian during his journey to Palestine.[45]

The Jordanian educational system comprises 2 years of pre-school education, 10 years of compulsory basic education, and two years of secondary academic or vocational education, after which the students sit for the General Certificate of Secondary Education Exam (Tawjihi) exams.[284] Scholars may attend either private or public schools. According to the UNESCO, the literacy rate in 2015 was 98.01% and is considered to be the highest in the Middle East and the Arab world, and one of the highest in the world.[277] UNESCO ranked Jordan's educational system 18th out of 94 nations for providing gender equality in education.[285] Jordan has the highest number of researchers in research and development per million people among all the 57 countries that are members of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). In Jordan there are 8060 researchers per million people, while the world average is 2532 per million.[286] Primary education is free in Jordan.[287]


According to Freedom House, Jordan is ranked as the 3rd freest Arab country, and as "partly free" in the Freedom in the World 2018 report.[143] The 2010 Arab Democracy Index from the Arab Reform Initiative ranked Jordan first in the state of democratic reforms out of 15 Arab countries.[144] Jordan ranked first among the Arab states and 78th globally in the Human Freedom Index in 2015,[145] and ranked 55th out of 175 countries in the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) issued by Transparency International in 2014, where 175th is most corrupt.[146] In the 2016 Press Freedom Index maintained by Reporters Without Borders, Jordan ranked 135th out of 180 countries worldwide, and 5th of 19 countries in the Middle East and North Africa region. Jordan's score was 44 on a scale from 0 (most free) to 105 (least free). The report added "the Arab Spring and the Syrian conflict have led the authorities to tighten their grip on the media and, in particular, the Internet, despite an outcry from civil society".[147] Jordanian media consists of public and private institutions. Popular Jordanian newspapers include Al Ghad and the Jordan Times. The two most-watched local TV stations are Ro'ya TV and Jordan TV.[148] Internet penetration in Jordan reached 76% in 2015.[149]
The Air Jordan XX3 was designed by Tinker Hatfield. It was a unique model, being the first basketball shoe to be included in the "Nike Considered" category, for using materials from not more than 200 miles from a Nike Factory. It features a hand-stitched exterior, full-length bootie, carbon fiber shank plate, the last to feature interchangeable IPS pillars, and an articulated chassis. The shoe was released on January 25, 2008, and was the last Air Jordan until the XX8 to have Roman numeral identification.
Natural gas was discovered in Jordan in 1987, however, the estimated size of the reserve discovered was about 230 billion cubic feet, a minuscule quantity compared with its oil-rich neighbours. The Risha field, in the eastern desert beside the Iraqi border, produces nearly 35 million cubic feet of gas a day, which is sent to a nearby power plant to generate a small amount of Jordan's electricity needs.[206] This led to a reliance on importing oil to generate almost all of its electricity. Regional instability over the decades halted oil and gas supply to the kingdom from various sources, making it incur billions of dollars in losses. Jordan built a liquified natural gas port in Aqaba in 2012 to temporarily substitute the supply, while formulating a strategy to rationalize energy consumption and to diversify its energy sources. Jordan receives 330 days of sunshine per year, and wind speeds reach over 7 m/s in the mountainous areas, so renewables proved a promising sector.[207] King Abdullah inaugurated large-scale renewable energy projects in the 2010s including: the 117 MW Tafila Wind Farm, the 53 MW Shams Ma'an and the 103 MW Quweira solar power plants, with several more projects planned. By early 2018, it was reported that more than 500 MW of renewable energy projects had been completed, contributing to 7% of Jordan's electricity up from 3 % in 2011, while 93% was generated from gas.[208] After having initially set the percentage of renewable energy Jordan aimed to generate by 2020 at 10%, the government announced in 2018 that it sought to beat that figure and aim for 20%.[209] A report by pv magazine described Jordan as the Middle East's "solar powerhouse".[210]
The last functioning part of the famous Hejaz Railway, twice-weekly trains used to arrive from Damascus (Syria) at Amman's Mahatta junction just north-east of the downtown area, close to Marka Airport. However, services have been suspended since mid-2006 due to damage to the tracks, and it's unclear when they will resume. Even when they were running, trains took a very leisurely 9 hours (considerably slower than driving), and provided a very low standard of comfort. There are no other passenger trains in Jordan.
The first organised army in Jordan was established on 22 October 1920, and was named the "Arab Legion". Jordan's capture of the West Bank during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War proved that the Arab Legion, known today as the Jordan Armed Forces, was the most effective among the Arab troops involved in the war.[90] The Royal Jordanian Army, which boasts around 110,000 personnel, is considered to be among the most professional in the region, due to being particularly well-trained and organised.[90] The Jordanian military enjoys strong support and aid from the United States, the United Kingdom and France. This is due to Jordan's critical position in the Middle East.[90] The development of Special Operations Forces has been particularly significant, enhancing the capability of the military to react rapidly to threats to homeland security, as well as training special forces from the region and beyond.[159] Jordan provides extensive training to the security forces of several Arab countries.[160]
Citizens of most other countries and territories can obtain a visa on arrival for a maximum stay of 2, 3 or 6 months for a fee. The visa is issued free of charge for citizens of Algeria, Hong Kong, Japan, Morocco, and South Africa, for tour group visitors of a minimum of 5 members staying for a minimum of two nights and are holding a non-refundable return or round trip ticket, or for independent travellers staying for a minimum of three nights and who have purchased the unified tourist site ticket that includes admission to the Roman city of Jerash, the UNESCO World Heritage site of Petra and others in the capital Amman. The fees for a visa on arrival are:
Nationals of Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Comoros, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, the Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Iran, Kenya, Laos, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Moldova, Mongolia, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Republic of the Congo, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Yemen and Zambia will be required to apply for a visa at a Jordanian Diplomatic Mission prior to travel. Additionally, they will also require a Security Approval.
Travelling by taxi from Aqaba (Jordan) via Eliat (Israel) to Taba (Egypt), then taking a bus or shared taxi to southern Sinai is generally faster than taking the boat because of wait times at before the ferry departs and upon ferry arrival. Because of the high ferry costs, two travellers crossing by ground together will save money over taking the ferry. Note that within Israel, there is an Egged bus that operates from Eliat to the Egyptian border crossing, but a taxi is required between Eliat and the Jordanian border crossing. Remember to ask that Israeli customs do not to stamp the passport when entering and exiting Israel.

The Air Jordan XX8, designed by Tinker Hatfield, was released on February 16, 2013. This premiere model featuring a mostly black upper and volt Dynamic Fit bootie. A heel and forefoot Nike Zoom unit in combination with the new Jordan Flight Plate, Dynamic Fit straps for increased support, a carbon fiber heel counter for additional support, and its most notable feature, the mesh upper for flexibility and ventilation. Jordan Brand has decided for 2013 to returning to the Air Jordan numbered order after having stopped at XX3. The Air Jordan 2012 featured different technology which including interchangeable insoles for various styles of play, a concept introduced with the Kobe System. The exterior shroud gives the shoe a sleeker look than any other and is 8 inches high on the ankle but unzips and folds down revealing the bright volt green interior.
Released in 2006 retailing at $295 containing the sneakers Michael Jordan wore during his first championship of his two three-peats. The retro 11 concord contains a gold Jumpman on the side, but originally was meant to also have gold eyelets spelling out Jordan was changed because of color bleeding. The retro 6 black infrared replaces its infrared for gold as well. Both shoes contained dog tags to reference the title won and a booklet showcasing a slam dunk highlight of the game and concept art of the shoe. Some of the original DMP retro 11 concords have surfaced and are considered some of the rarest air Jordans.[26]
The Air Jordan XXXI (31) was unveiled on July 20, 2016. The sneaker is heavily influenced by the Air Jordan 1's having a leather upper and both a Nike swoosh and a Jumpman plus a Jordan "Wings" logo.[22] Its first retail debut was on September 3, 2016 in the "banned" colorway for $185 alongside its air Jordan 1 counterpart.[22] Notable appearances of the AJ 31 include the "USA" colorway worn during the 2016 Olympic basketball tournament by members of team USA.[23]Basketball at the 2016 Summer Olympics – Men's team rosters.
The Air Jordan XXX (30) debuted on January 14, 2016 at an exclusive media event in Chicago. It was again designed by Tinker Hatfield. The first colorway of the shoe released on February 16.[21] The shoe consists of an upper and outsole very similar to that of the XX9 of the previous year. The upper is a combination of performance woven and flyknit that is new for the brand in 2016, and also has a flyknit-constructed ankle collar that extends slightly past where the collar of the shoe would normally be. Jordan brand has also brought back functional Dynamic Fit in the lacing system. The outsole/midsole is almost identical to the XX9, with very minor technical tweaks. The outsole boasts a more noticeable change, with a different traction pattern unique to this shoe, while the midsole remains almost entirely the same. The only difference in the midlsole cushioning setup from the Jordan XX9 is a material change in the FlightPlate setup, which is now named FlightSpeed and is constructed of a plastic rather than carbon fiber for more flexibility while remaining structural integrity.
During our F.D (Financial Disaster) I found a gaping void online in terms of finding someone I could relate to; someone who knew what it felt like to have 5 babies in 6 years and feel the stress of choosing between new socks or an extra box of cereal. Sure, I could learn how to pay off my house and put money into a (non-existant) 401K, or find coupons to clip that I had no interest in clipping. But how do I know how much to pay for groceries? Or how to look classy, feel beautiful, and stay fashionable on an actual budget? Or how to talk about money without wanting to kill each other? Or where to start when your finances are on the brink of disaster?
×