Most Jordanians speak English, especially in urban area such as Amman and in areas that receive tourists and amongst younger people. French and German are the second and third most popular languages after English. You may encounter some Caucasian and Armenian languages because of the number of Caucasian immigrants that arrived during the early 1900s.
Holders of confirmed onward tickets may stay in transit at Gold Coast Airport or any other international airport in Australia without a visa for a maximum time of 2 hours as long as they are arriving and departing on the same aircraft (excluding Gold Coast Airport). Holders of confirmed onward tickets may also stay in transit without a visa at any international airport in Australia (except for Gold Coast Airport) for a maximum time of 8 hours.[31]
Despite being a classic Jordan icon, the Air Jordan 6 occasionally makes its way back to the flat form, of course in different retro releases. This was the shoe that once drew controversial issue due to some flaws in the construction but was later fixed and continued its flight. Aside from taking inspiration from Porsche with its rear pull tab, the Air Jordan 6 was the first Jordan to possess an inner bootie. Designed and engineered for MJ’s comfort and convenience, this shoe later achieved positive reviews.
Much of Jordan's more dramatic scenery requires 4x4 vehicles with drivers or guides familiar with the territory. Most people visiting Jordan opt for organised tours, although it is possible to use local guides from the various visitors' centres at Jordan's eco-nature reserves. These include Wadi Rum, the Dana Reserve and Iben Hamam. The majority of tourists crossing into Jordan from Israel are on one-day Petra tours or in organised tour groups. They make up a significant percent of the daily visitors in Petra and Jordan's natural attractions. Shared tours are organized through a hotel Arab Tower Hotel.
Alternative is Zarqa Private University. It is 35 minute drive exactly east of Amman and can save you a fortune due to the fact the city Zarqa cost 1/3 less to stay in the apartments. The fact is that you only spend JOD90-120 monthly and get same or even better looking apartments with more room than Amman. The Zarqa Private University bus comes all the time at main street and takes you to a bus station within 3 minutes and from there the bus picks-up everyone (5-10min) then heads to the University.

Jordan has the 5th largest oil-shale reserves in the world, which could be commercially exploited in the central and northwestern regions of the country.[211] Official figures estimate the kingdom's oil shale reserves at more than 70 billion tonnes. The extraction of oil-shale had been delayed a couple of years due to technological difficulties; and the relatively higher costs.[212] The government overcame the difficulties and in 2017 laid the groundbreaking for the Attarat Power Plant, a $2.2 billion oil shale-dependent power plant that is expected to generate 470 MW after it is completed in 2020.[213] Jordan also aims to benefit from its large uranium reserves by tapping nuclear energy. The original plan involved constructing two 1000 MW reactors but has been scrapped due to financial constraints.[214] Currently, the country's Atomic Energy Commission is considering building small modular reactors instead, whose capacities hover below 500 MW and can provide new water sources through desalination. In 2018, the Commission announced that Jordan was in talks with multiple companies to build the country's first commercial nuclear plant, a Helium-cooled reactor that is scheduled for completion by 2025.[215] Phosphate mines in the south have made Jordan one of the largest producers and exporters of the mineral in the world.[216]
The Air Jordan XXXI (31) was unveiled on July 20, 2016. The sneaker is heavily influenced by the Air Jordan 1's having a leather upper and both a Nike swoosh and a Jumpman plus a Jordan "Wings" logo.[22] Its first retail debut was on September 3, 2016 in the "banned" colorway for $185 alongside its air Jordan 1 counterpart.[22] Notable appearances of the AJ 31 include the "USA" colorway worn during the 2016 Olympic basketball tournament by members of team USA.[23]Basketball at the 2016 Summer Olympics – Men's team rosters.
Released in 2004, this is the first Jordan release after his third, and final, retirement which came after the 2002–03 NBA season. The design was inspired by the black mamba snake, and two original colorways where released: white/flint grey and black/red. Three regional colorways and three special edition colorways were released. They consisted of the East, West, and Midwest edition for regular and West, East, and Olympic for the SE (special edition).
From Joppa, Jerusalem, the River Jordan, the Sea of Tiberias, Nazareth, Bethany, Bethlehem, and other points of interest in the Holy Land can be visited, and here those who may have preferred to make the journey from Beirut through the country, passing through Damascus, Galilee, Capernaum, Samaria, and by the River Jordan and Sea of Tiberias, can rejoin the steamer.

Over 2,000 plant species have been recorded in Jordan.[118] Many of the flowering plants bloom in the spring after the winter rains and the type of vegetation depends largely on the levels of precipitation. The mountainous regions in the northwest are clothed in forests, while further south and east the vegetation becomes more scrubby and transitions to steppe-type vegetation.[119] Forests cover 1.5 million dunums (1,500 km2), less than 2% of Jordan, making Jordan among the world's least forested countries, the international average being 15%.[120]
Only after Ibrahim Pasha's campaign did the Ottoman Empire try to solidify its presence in the Syria Vilayet, which Transjordan was part of.[69] A series of tax and land reforms (Tanzimat) in 1864 brought some prosperity back to agriculture and to abandoned villages, while it provoked a backlash in other areas of Transjordan.[69] Muslim Circassians and Chechens, fleeing Russian persecution, sought refuge in the Levant.[70] In Transjordan and with Ottoman support, Circassians first settled in the long-abandoned vicinity of Amman in 1867, and later in the surrounding villages.[70] After having established its administration, conscription and heavy taxation policies by the Ottoman authorities, led to revolts in the areas it controlled.[71] Transjordan's tribes in particular revolted during the Shoubak (1905) and the Karak Revolts (1910), which were brutally suppressed.[70] The construction of the Hejaz Railway in 1908–stretching across the length of Transjordan and linking Mecca with Istanbul–helped the population economically as Transjordan became a stopover for pilgrims.[70] However, increasing policies of Turkification and centralization adopted by the Ottoman Empire disenchanted the Arabs of the Levant.[72]
Nike's first professional athlete endorser was Romanian tennis player Ilie Năstase. The first track endorser was distance runner Steve Prefontaine. Prefontaine was the prized pupil of the company's co-founder, Bill Bowerman, while he coached at the University of Oregon. Today, the Steve Prefontaine Building is named in his honor at Nike's corporate headquarters.
The Crusaders constructed several Crusader castles as part of the Lordship of Oultrejordain, including those of Montreal and Al-Karak.[56] The Ayyubids built the Ajloun Castle and rebuilt older castles, to be used as military outposts against the Crusaders.[57] During the Battle of Hattin (1187) near Lake Tiberias just north of Transjordan, the Crusaders lost to Saladin, the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty (1187–1260).[57] Villages in Transjordan under the Ayyubids became important stops for Muslim pilgrims going to Mecca who travelled along the route that connected Syria to the Hejaz.[58] Several of the Ayyubid castles were used and expanded by the Mamluks (1260–1516), who divided Transjordan between the provinces of Karak and Damascus.[59] During the next century Transjordan experienced Mongol attacks, but the Mongols were ultimately repelled by the Mamluks after the Battle of Ain Jalut (1260).[60]
The success of the Air Jordan 1 encouraged Nike to release the New Air Jordan in 1986 for the new basketball season. Designed by Peter Moore and Bruce Kilgore, the original Air Jordan II was unique in that it was made in Italy. The Air Jordan 2 also retailed with a full length encapsulated Nike air bubble for maximum comfort. The Air Jordan 2 was the first Jordan not to have the Nike swoosh on the upper. The Air Jordan II was originally retailed at $100. The Air Jordan was originally released from 1986 to 1987. The model was revived from obscurity when Air Jordan collaborated with Just Don to create the Just Don x Air Jordan 2. The shoe featured premium blue quilted leather inspired by a Chanel handbag and released in very limited numbers on January 31, 2015 for $275. The shoe was released again in a Beach colourway bundled with a premium snapback and gold pin for $650 on January 30, 2016, later re-released in 1994, 2004–2005, 2008, 2010, 2014–2018.
The last functioning part of the famous Hejaz Railway, twice-weekly trains used to arrive from Damascus (Syria) at Amman's Mahatta junction just north-east of the downtown area, close to Marka Airport. However, services have been suspended since mid-2006 due to damage to the tracks, and it's unclear when they will resume. Even when they were running, trains took a very leisurely 9 hours (considerably slower than driving), and provided a very low standard of comfort. There are no other passenger trains in Jordan.
Al-Qaeda under Abu Musab al-Zarqawi's leadership launched coordinated explosions in three hotel lobbies in Amman on 9 November 2005, resulting in 60 deaths and 115 injured.[107] The bombings, which targeted civilians, caused widespread outrage among Jordanians.[107] The attack is considered to be a rare event in the country, and Jordan's internal security was dramatically improved afterwards.[107] No major terrorist attacks have occurred since then.[108] Abdullah and Jordan are viewed with contempt by Islamic extremists for the country's peace treaty with Israel and its relationship with the West.[109]
Jordan's military industry thrived after the King Abdullah Design and Development Bureau (KADDB) defence company was established by King Abdullah II in 1999, to provide an indigenous capability for the supply of scientific and technical services to the Jordanian Armed Forces, and to become a global hub in security research and development. It manufactures all types of military products, many of which are presented at the bi-annually held international military exhibition SOFEX. In 2015, KADDB exported $72 million worth of industries to over 42 countries.[220]
The first organised army in Jordan was established on 22 October 1920, and was named the "Arab Legion". Jordan's capture of the West Bank during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War proved that the Arab Legion, known today as the Jordan Armed Forces, was the most effective among the Arab troops involved in the war.[90] The Royal Jordanian Army, which boasts around 110,000 personnel, is considered to be among the most professional in the region, due to being particularly well-trained and organised.[90] The Jordanian military enjoys strong support and aid from the United States, the United Kingdom and France. This is due to Jordan's critical position in the Middle East.[90] The development of Special Operations Forces has been particularly significant, enhancing the capability of the military to react rapidly to threats to homeland security, as well as training special forces from the region and beyond.[159] Jordan provides extensive training to the security forces of several Arab countries.[160]
The Air Jordan XI was originally released from 1995 to 1996. It was retro'd in 2000, 2001, 2003, and 2006–2018. The Air Jordan XI is the most popular Air Jordan in the series and has released almost ritualistically every December since 2008, selling out in minutes. It also is Hatfield's favorite. With the Air Jordan XI being the most popular Jordan, supply used to be very limited and would cause fans to line up outside of stores before releases.
Alternative is Zarqa Private University. It is 35 minute drive exactly east of Amman and can save you a fortune due to the fact the city Zarqa cost 1/3 less to stay in the apartments. The fact is that you only spend JOD90-120 monthly and get same or even better looking apartments with more room than Amman. The Zarqa Private University bus comes all the time at main street and takes you to a bus station within 3 minutes and from there the bus picks-up everyone (5-10min) then heads to the University.
The oldest evidence of hominid habitation in Jordan dates back at least 200,000 years.[21] Jordan is rich in Paleolithic (up to 20,000 years ago) remains due to its location within the Levant where expansions of hominids out of Africa converged.[22] Past lakeshore environments attracted different hominids, and several remains of tools have been found from this period.[22] The world's oldest evidence of bread-making was found in a 14,500 years old Natufian site in Jordan's northeastern desert.[23] The transition from hunter-gatherer to establishing populous agricultural villages occurred during the Neolithic period (10,000–4,500 BC).[24] 'Ain Ghazal, one such village located in today's eastern Amman, is one of the largest known prehistoric settlements in the Near East.[25] Dozens of plaster statues of the human form dating to 7250 BC were uncovered there and they are among the oldest ever found.[26] Other than the usual Chalcolithic (4500–3600 BC) villages such as Tulaylet Ghassul in the Jordan Valley,[27] a series of circular stone enclosures in the eastern basalt desert−whose purpose remains uncertain–have baffled archaeologists.[28]
Music in Jordan is now developing with a lot of new bands and artists, who are now popular in the Middle East. Artists such as Omar Al-Abdallat, Toni Qattan, Diana Karazon and Hani Metwasi have increased the popularity of Jordanian music.[263] The Jerash Festival is an annual music event that features popular Arab singers.[263] Pianist and composer Zade Dirani has gained wide international popularity.[264] There is also an increasing growth of alternative Arabic rock bands, who are dominating the scene in the Arab World, including: El Morabba3, Autostrad, JadaL, Akher Zapheer and Aziz Maraka.[265]
The second Countdown package consisted of the Air Jordan Retro XIV model in Black/Varsity Red which was similar to the Air Jordan "Last Shot" XIV model though it consisted of a white stitching on the sides, a different color outer arch, and a different colored Jumpman logo on the side. The other Air Jordan was the Air Jordan Retro IX model in a White/Black/True Red colorway. The package retailed for US$310.00 and was released March 15, 2008.
This was the first shoe after Jordan's retirement. The design of the XV's originated from the aircraft prototype X-15, which was developed by NASA during the 1950s. The sides of the XV were made from woven kevlar fibre. The Jordan XV's were the first Air Jordans to be negatively received in a while (the last being the Air Jordan 2's), because the quality on the Jordan shoes was bad.[17]
Day rates for taxis can be negotiated. These are usually through specific taxi drivers that have offered the service to friends or colleagues before. If you are staying at a hotel, the reception desk should be able to find you a reliable driver. It is also quite common in quiet times to be approached (politely) by taxi drivers on the street looking for business. There are plenty of good English speakers so it pays to wait until you find one you like.
The Great Recession and the turmoil caused by the Arab Spring have depressed Jordan's GDP growth, damaging trade, industry, construction and tourism.[17] Tourist arrivals have dropped sharply since 2011.[176] Since 2011, the natural gas pipeline in Sinai supplying Jordan from Egypt was attacked 32 times by Islamic State affiliates. Jordan incurred billions of dollars in losses because it had to substitute more expensive heavy-fuel oils to generate electricity.[177] In November 2012, the government cut subsidies on fuel, increasing its price.[178] The decision, which was later revoked, caused large scale protests to break out across the country.[175][176]
Jordan is a key ally of the USA and UK and, together with Egypt, is one of only two Arab nations to have signed peace treaties with Israel, Jordan's direct neighbour.[152] Jordan views an independent Palestinian state with the 1967 borders, as part of the two-state solution and of supreme national interest.[153] The ruling Hashemite dynasty has had custodianship over holy sites in Jerusalem since 1924, a position re-inforced in the Israel–Jordan peace treaty. Turmoil in Jerusalem's Al-Aqsa mosque between Israelis and Palestinians created tensions between Jordan and Israel concerning the former's role in protecting the Muslim and Christian sites in Jerusalem.[154]

Fortified towns and urban centers first emerged in the southern Levant early on in the Bronze Age (3600–1200 BC).[29] Wadi Feynan became a regional center for copper extraction, which was exploited on a large-scale to produce bronze.[30] Trade and movement of people in the Middle East peaked, spreading and refining civilizations.[31] Villages in Transjordan expanded rapidly in areas with reliable water resources and agricultural land.[31] Ancient Egyptians expanded towards the Levant and controlled both banks of the Jordan River.[32] During the Iron Age (1200–332 BC) after the withdrawal of the Egyptians, Transjordan was home to Ammon, Edom and Moab.[33] They spoke Semitic languages of the Canaanite group, and are considered to be tribal kingdoms rather than states.[33] Ammon was located in the Amman plateau; Moab in the highlands east of the Dead Sea; and Edom in the area around Wadi Araba down south.[33]
Jordan is a relatively-small, semi-arid, almost-landlocked country with an area of 89,342 km2 (34,495 sq mi) and a population numbering 10 million, making it the 11th-most populous Arab country. Sunni Islam, practiced by around 95% of the population, is the dominant religion in Jordan that coexists with the indigenous Christian minority. Jordan has been repeatedly referred to as an "oasis of stability" in a turbulent region. It has been mostly unscathed from the violence that swept the region following the Arab Spring in 2010.[11] From as early as 1948, Jordan has accepted refugees from multiple neighbouring countries in conflict. An estimated 2.1 million Palestinian and 1.4 million Syrian refugees are present in Jordan as of a 2015 census.[3] The kingdom is also a refuge to thousands of Iraqi Christians fleeing persecution by ISIL.[12] While Jordan continues to accept refugees, the recent large influx from Syria placed substantial strain on national resources and infrastructure.[13]
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